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Pages 1477-1496 History Greatest Leaders

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Index 1: Name or Ideas & Main Occupation of the Most Important People in their Profession that have died that have added the Most to Society and or Civilization in Chronological Order Based of EIV Bible Projection of Civil and or Love Purpose

1.)Shiva (also Siva) (pronounced /ˈʃiːvə/; Sanskrit: शिव, Śiva; IPA: [ˈɕiʋə]; meaning "Auspicious one"), is a major Hindudeity, and the Destroyer or transformer of the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. In the Shaiva tradition of Hinduism, Shiva is seen as the Supreme Being. In the Smarta tradition, he is regarded as one of the five primary forms of God. Followers of Hinduism who focus their worship upon Shiva are called Shaivites or Shaivas (Sanskrit Śaiva).Shaivism, along with Vaiṣṇava traditions that focus on Vishnu and Śākta traditions that focus on the goddessShakti are three of the most influential denominations in Hinduism. Shiva is usually worshipped in the abstract form of Shiva linga. In images, he is generally represented as immersed in deep meditation or dancing the Tandava upon Maya, the demon of ignorance in his manifestation of Nataraja, the lord of the dance. The Sanskrit word Shiva (Devanagari: शिव, śiva) is an adjective meaning "auspicious, kind, gracious". As a proper name it means "The Auspicious One", used as a name for Rudra. In simple English transliteration it is written either as Shiva or Siva. The adjective śiva, meaning "auspicious", is used as an attributive epithet not particularly of Rudra, but of several other Vedic deities. The Sanskrit word śaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", and this term is the Sanskrit name both for one of the principal sects of Hinduism and for a member of that sect. It is used as an adjective to characterize certain beliefs and practices, such as Shaivism. Adi Sankara, in his interpretation of the name Shiva, the 27th and 600th name of Vishnu sahasranama, the thousand names of Vishnu interprets Shiva to have multiple meanings: "The Pure One", or "the One who is not affected by three Gunas of Prakrti (Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas)" or "the One who purifies everyone by the very utterance of His name."Swami Chinmayananda, in his translation of Vishnu sahasranama, further elaborates on that verse: Shiva means "the One who is eternally pure" or "the One who can never have any contamination of the imperfection of Rajas and Tamas". Shiva's role as the primary deity of Shaivism is reflected in his epithets Mahādeva ("Great God"; mahā = Great + deva = God),Maheśhvara ("Great Lord"; mahā = Great + īśhvara = Lord),and Parameśhvara ("Supreme Lord").There are at least eight different versions of the Shiva Sahasranama, devotional hymns (stotras) listing many names of Shiva.The version appearing in Book 13 (Anuśāsanaparvan) of the Mahabharata is considered the kernel of this tradition. Shiva also has Dasha-Sahasranamas (10,000 names) that are found in the Mahanyasa. The Shri Rudram Chamakam, also known as the Śatarudriya, is a devotional hymn to Shiva hailing him by many names. In Judaism, shiva(or 'shiv'ah',Hebrew: שבעה ; "seven") is the week-long period of grief and mourning for the seven first-degree relatives: father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, and spouse. (Grandparents and grandchildren are traditionally not included). As most regular activity is interrupted, the process of following the shiva ritual is referred to as "sitting" shiva. Shiva is a part of the customs for bereavement in Judaism. There are three supreme gods 1 one is Lord Shiva, Second one is Brahma and third one Vishnu. Lord shiva is the destroyer and also have a positive side in that destruction usual leads to new forms of existence. Lord shiva is described in art with four hand, four faces and three eyes. The third eye always keep this power to destroy the creation, not only creation including gods and humans. In the Vedas, a collection of ancient sacred texts, lord shiva is identified with the storm god Rudra. How the birth of Lord Shiva? There is a very interesting story behind the birth of lord shiva. One day brahma and Vishnu both are arguing about which of them are more powerful. That time one great blazing pillar appear which root and branches extended beyond view into the earth and sky. Now both god Brahma and Vishnu start to find out the start and end of that pillar. Brahma turned into goose and flew up to find the top of the pillar, while Vishnu turned into a boar and dug into the earth to look for its roots. After unsuccessful both came back and seen that there is a god Lord Shiva emerged from an opening in the pillar. Recognizing Shiva’s great power, they both god accepted that there is the third power who rules over the inverse. In Judaism, shiva (or shiv'ah, pronounced /ˈʃɪvə/; Hebrew: שבעה ; "seven") is the week-long period of grief and mourning for the seven first-degree relatives: father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, and spouse. As most regular activity is interrupted, the process of following the shiva ritual is referred to as "sitting" shiva. Shiva is a part of the customs for bereavement in Judaism. Length of Shiva: The Hebrew word "shiva" means "seven", and the official shiva period is seven days. The day of the funeral is counted as the first day of shiva, even though the practice does not begin until after the mourner(s) arrive at the designated location following the funeral. On day seven, shiva generally ends in the morning, following services, and the mourners are walked around the block by the community. This practice is based on two verses from the Book of Isaiah.On Shabbat during the week of shiva, no formal mourning takes place, but the day is counted as one of the seven. Sometimes, a minyan with a Torah reading will take place at the mourner's house.......) Pg. 988 Element Section Quantum Creative Ingredient Ingredients History Biography Information….

2.)Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा; IAST:Brahmā) is the Hindu god (deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. According to the Brahma Purana, he is the father of Mānu, and from Mānu all human beings are descended. In the Ramayana and the Mahābhārata, he is often referred to as the progenitor or great grandsire of all human beings. He is not to be confused with the Supreme Cosmic Spirit in Hindu Vedānta philosophy known as Brahman, which is genderless. Brahmā's consort is Sāvitri and Gāyatri. Saraswati sits beside him, the goddess of learning. Brahmā is often identified with Prajapati, a Vedic deity. Attributes: At the beginning of the process of creation, Brahmā created eleven Prajapatis (used in another sense), who are believed to be the fathers of the human race. The Manusmriti enumerates them as Marici, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratuj, Vashishta, Pracetas or Daksha, Bhrigu, and Nārada. He is also said to have created the seven great sages or the Saptarishi to help him create the universe. However since all these sons of his were born out of his mind rather than body, they are called Manas Putras or mind-sons or spirits.Within Vedic and Purānic scripture Brahmā is described as only occasionally interfering in the affairs of the other devas (gods), and even more rarely in mortal affairs. He did force Soma to give Tara back to her husband, Brihaspati. He is considered the father of Dharma and Atri. Creation: According to the Puranas, Brahma is self-born (without mother) in the lotus flower. Another legend says that Brahmā was born in water. A seed that later became the golden egg. From this golden egg, Brahma the creator was born, as Hiranyagarbha. The remaining materials of this golden egg expanded into the Brahm-anda or Universe. Being born in water, Brahmā is also called Kanja (born in water). Brahmā is said also to be the son of the Supreme Being, Brahman, and the female energy known as Prakrti or Maya.The image depiction displaying the connection by lotus between Brahma and Vishnu can also be taken as a symbolism for the primordial fetus and primordial placenta. The placenta is generated upon conception, but only the fetus continues into the world afterward. Likewise, Brahma is involved in creation, but Vishnu continues thereafter………….) Pg. 869 Poem Title Dharma Parker House Roll Poem…..Pg. 1547 Christian Values & Quality Catholic Belief…What is Dharma…Sum it Up is on Pg. 1477-1478 #2 Read Up on Brahma leads to Dhrarma…

Song and Music Close is à Lullatone – Braham’s by Martinshorn away of Praying and Saying Thanks and Goodnight to you all!!!

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3.)Vishnu (Sanskritविष्णुViṣṇu) is the Supreme God in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God.The Vishnu Sahasranamadeclares Vishnu as Paramatma (supreme soul) and Parameshwara (supreme God). It describes Vishnu as the All-Pervading essence of all beings, the master of—and beyond—the past, present and future, the creator and destroyer of all existences, one who supports, sustains and governs the Universe and originates and develops all elements within. In the Puranas, Vishnu is described as having the divine colour of water filled clouds, four-armed, holding a lotus, mace, conch (shankha) and chakra (wheel). Vishnu is also described in the Bhagavad Gita as having a 'Universal Form' (Vishvarupa) which is beyond the ordinary limits of human perception.The Purana also describe each of the Dasavatara of Vishnu. Among these ten principal avatara described, nine have occurred in the past and one will take place in the future, at the end of Kali Yuga. In the commentary of creator Brahma in Vishnu Sahasranamam, he refers to Vishnu as "Sahasrakoti Yuga Dharine", which means that these incarnations take place in all Yugas in cosmic scales. The Bhagavad Gita mentions their purpose as being to rejuvenate Dharma and vanquish negative forces as also to display His divine pastimes in front of the conditioned/fallen souls. In almost all Hindu denominations, Vishnu is either worshiped directly or in the form of his ten avatara, such as Rama and Krishna.The Trimurti (English: ‘three forms’; Sanskrit: trimūrti) is a concept in Hinduism "in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified by the forms of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the maintainer or preserver, and Shiva the destroyer or transformer."These three deities have been called "the Hindu triad" or the "Great Trinity".Of the three members of the Trimurti, the Bhagavata Purana, which espouses the Vaishnavite viewpoint, explains that the greatest benefit can be had from Vishnu.Panchayatana puja (IASTPañcāyatana pūja) is the system of worship in the Smartasampradaya of Hinduism. It is said to have been introduced by Adi Shankara, the 8th century CEHindu philosopher. It consists of the worship of five deities: 1.) Shiva, 2.)Vishnu, 3.)Surya, 4.)Ganesha, and 5.)Devi (Devanagari: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for Goddess, used mostly in Hinduism. Devi is synonymous with Shakti, the female aspect of the divine, as conceptualized by the Shakta tradition of Hinduism. She is the female counterpart without whom the male aspect, which represents consciousness or discrimination, remains impotent and void. Goddess worship is an integral part of Hinduism.Devi is, quintessentially, the core form of every Hindu Goddess. As the female manifestation of the supreme lord, she is also called Prakriti, as she balances out the male aspect of the divine addressed Purusha.Devi is the supreme Being in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, while in the Smartha tradition, she is one of the five primary forms of God. In other Hindu traditions of Shaivism and Vaishnavism, Devi embodies the active energy and power of male deities (Purushas), such as Vishnu in Vaishnavism or Shiva in Shaivism. Vishnu's shakti counterpart is called Lakshmi, with Parvati being the female shakti of Shiva. Depending on the tradition followed by Smarta households, one of these deities is kept in the center and the other four surround it. Worship is offered to all the deities. The five are represented by small murtis, or by five kinds of stones, or by five marks drawn on the floor.One is placed in the center as the devotee's preferred God, Ishta Devata, and the other four in a square around it………..) Pg. 792 Poem Hindu Festival of Lights Stopping Evil Poem….

4.) Buddha was born approximately 560 B.C. in the land of Northern India. Through his life, Buddha gave the concept of Nirvana an unprecedented exposure to a large portion of the Eastern world with his achievement of and subsequent teachings about the state of enlightenment. As a religion, Buddhism contains the attainment of Buddhahood or Nirvana as a central tenet of its teachings. Within the realm of Christianity, the historical Christ echoed the same teaching, though in a veiled form, by saying that the Kingdom of Heaven is within us. In Buddhist thought the world has but a relative reality in that it is a Maya or illusion in which we go round and round the whirlpool of Samsara, the endless cycle of birth and death, gain and loss, pain and pleasure until we begin to search for a way out of the maelstrom of matter. In this objective world nothing is lasting, everything contained within it is in a state of flux or constant change. But the real source of all pleasure, truth, goodness and permanence is not dependent on the objective world at all but is instead contained within us. The inner essence or core of awareness of each of us is the Atma, the real source of all bliss. We experience a small fraction of this bliss as the senses go out after objects in the world. The world is illusory and the pleasures to be had in it are but momentary and fleeting. Buddha sought the means to attain the inner bliss of Nirvana which is permanent. The story of the life of the Buddha was popularized in the West through the book Siddhartha by Herman Hesse, though the author takes great liberties with the actual facts of the life of young Prince Siddhartha who later became Gautama Buddha. Within the last few decades, many movies have been made of the story. The movie the Razor's Edge, touches upon the difficulties involved in treading the path of spiritual unfoldment leading to Nirvana. The movie takes it's title from the Katha Upanishad which contains the statement:

"Arise! Awake! Approach the feet of the Master and know THAT (the Eternal Absolute). Narrow is the path and difficult to tread like the Razor's Edge".

Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थगौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from ancient India who founded Buddhism. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha (P. sammāsambuddha, S. samyaksaṃbuddha) of our age, "Buddha" meaning "awakened one" or "the enlightened one." The time of his birth and death are uncertain: most early 20th-century historians dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE, but more recent opinion dates his death to between 486 and 483 BCE or, according to some, between 411 and 400 BCE. Gautama, also known as Śākyamuni ("Sage of the Śākyas"), is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.He is also regarded as a god or prophet in other religions such as Hinduism, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Bahá'í faith. ….Pg. 322 Poem Buddha**** Pg. 326 Quote Element Ingredient Section**** Pg. 335 Love Clarification Affection Point Element Ingredient Section**** Pg. 429 Quote*** * Pg. 471 Love Buddha Poem**** Pg. 471 Quote**** Pg. 576 Enlightenment Words of Wisdom **** Pg. 657 Quote**** Pg.715 Quote**** Pg. 880 Quote**** Pg. 905 Quote**** Pg.966 Quote**** Pg.985 quote**** Pg. 1028 Chicken Soup for the Soul Female Devotional for whom Element Spiritual Ingredient Section**** Pg. 1085 Quote**** Pg.1108 Quote**** Pg.1110 Element Ingredient Section Quote**** Pg.1182 Quote**** Pg.1199 Element Ingredient Section Quote**** Pg.1207 Quote**** Pg. 1223 Element Ingredient Section Quote**** Pg. 1240 Enlightenment Understanding Quality Value State-Esteem Declaration Buddha, was the Central Figure of Buddhism Quote**** Pg. 1256 Element Ingredient Section Quote**** Pg. 1287 Quote**** Pg.1460 Quote**** Pg.1504 Quote Clarity Index Section 5C****

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5.)Jesus of Nazareth (c. 5 BC/BCE – c. 30 AD/CE), commonly known as Jesus Christ or simply Jesus, is the central figure of Christianity. Christians view him as the Messiah foretold in the Old Testament and as the Son of God, who provided salvation and reconciliation with God to humankind by dying for their sins, then rising from the dead. The principal sources of information regarding Jesus' life and teachings are the four canonical gospels, especially the Synoptic Gospels,though some scholars believe apocryphal texts such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel according to the Hebrews are also relevant.Most critical scholars in biblical studies believe that other parts of the New Testament are also useful for reconstructing Jesus' life,agreeing that Jesus was a Jew who was regarded as a teacher and healer, that he was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, on the charge of sedition against the Roman Empire.Critical Biblical scholars and historians have offered competing descriptions of Jesus as a self-described messiah, as the leader of an apocalyptic movement, as an itinerant sage, as a charismatic healer, and as the founder of an independent religious movement. Most contemporary scholars of the Historical Jesus consider him to have been an independent, charismatic founder of a Jewish restoration movement, anticipating an imminent apocalypse.Other prominent scholars, however, contend that Jesus' "Kingdom of God" meant radical personal and social transformation instead of a future apocalypse. Christians traditionally believe that Jesus was born of a virgin,performed miracles,founded the Church, rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven,from which he will return.Most Christian scholars today present Jesus as the awaited Messiah and as God,arguing that he fulfilled many Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament.The majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, of the divine Trinity. A few Christian groups, however, reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, believing it to be non-scriptural.Judaism rejects assertions that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh.In Islam, Jesus (Arabic: عيسى‎, commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets,a bringer of scripture, and the product of a virgin birth; but did not experience a crucifixion.Islam and the Baha'i Faith use the title "Messiah" for Jesus,but do not teach that he was God incarnate… Etymology:

See also: Yeshua"Jesus" (pronounced /ˈdʒiːzəs/) is a transliteration, occurring in a number of languages and based on the Latin Iesus, of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iēsoûs), itself a Hellenisation of the Hebrew יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (Yĕhōšuă‘, Joshua) or Hebrew-Aramaic יֵשׁוּעַ (Yēšûă‘), meaning "Yahweh delivers (or rescues)". "Christ" (pronounced /ˈkraɪst/) is a title derived from the Greek Χριστός (Christós), meaning the "Anointed One", a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Messiah).A "Messiah," in this context, is a king anointed at God's direction or with God's approval, and Christians identify Jesus as the one foretold by Hebrew prophets…………….) Pg.399 Mother Marry and Jesus Creative Creator Quote ofa Quote***** Pg. 472 Cover page one Chapter 5 Love The Virtue of Honesty Quoted at the Bottm of the Page Jesus is… Pg. 612 Quote***** Pg. 827 Jesus Christ Poem Jesus is Love and Peace Quality Impovement Improves Quality…What is Combined Omnipotence***** Pg. 828 Biblical Quote John 15:12 the Bible *** Pg. 1056 Quote*** Pg.1329 Cover Page One to Ch.18 History the Virtue of Justice*** Pg. 1414 Quote….

6.)Muhammad ibn 'Abdullāh n 2] (ca. 570/571 – June 8, 632), (Monday, 12th Rabi' al- Awwal, Year 11 A.H.) was the founder of the religion of Islam, and is regarded by Muslims as a messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: الله‎Allāh), the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets, and, by most Muslims, the last prophet as taught by the Qur'an 33:40–40. Muslims thus consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheisticfaith (islām) of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets.He was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general, and, according to Muslim belief, an agent of divine action. Born in 570 in the Arabian city of Mecca,he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic beliefs it was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām) is the only way (dīn) acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets. Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes; he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his remaining followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to 10,000, conquered Mecca. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; and he united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity. The revelations (or Ayat, lit. "Signs of God") — which Muhammad reported receiving until his death — form the verses of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Qur'an, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld by Muslims. They discuss Muhammad and other prophets of Islam with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever their names are mentioned.While conceptions of Muhammad in medievalChristendom and premodern times were largely negative, appraisals in modern history have been far less so.His life and deeds have been debated and criticized by followers and opponents over the centuries.He is revered as a true prophet and Manifestation of God in the Baha'i Faith. Names and Appellations in the Qur'an:The name Muhammad means "Praiseworthy" and occurs four times in the Qur'an.The Qur'an addresses Muhammad in the second person not by his name but by the appellationsprophet, messenger, servant of God ('abd), announcer (bashir), warner (nathir), reminder (mudhakkir), witness (shahid), bearer of good tidings (mubashshir), one who calls [unto God] (dā‘ī) and the light-giving lamp (siraj munir). Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped (al-muzzammil) in Qur'an 73:1 and the shrouded (al-muddaththir) in Qur'an 74:1. In the Qur'an, believers are not to distinguish between the messengers of God and are to believe in all of them (Surah 2:285). God has caused some messengers to excel above others 2:253 and in Surah 33:40 He singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets". The Qur'an also refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy" (Arabic: أحمد‎, Surah 61:6). The One and Only…Fourteen hundred years ago, when people asked the Prophet Muhammad , who is your Lord. The answer came in the following verse of the Holy Quran:

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

Say: "He is Allah, the One and Only. (The Holy Quran, Surah Al-Ikhlas, Ayah 1, 112:1)

In full Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (b. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]—d. June 8, 632, Medina), Arab prophet who established the religion of Islam. The son of a merchant of the ruling tribe, he was orphaned at age six. He married a rich widow, Khadījah, with whom he had six children, including Fāṭimah, a daughter. According to tradition, in 610 he was visited by the angel Gabriel, who informed Muhammad that he was the messenger of God. His revelations and teachings, recorded in the Qurʾān, are the basis of Islam. He began to preach publicly c. 613, urging the rich to give to the poor and calling for the destruction of idols. He gained disciples but also acquired enemies, whose plan to murder Muhammad forced him to flee Mecca for Medina in 622. This flight, known as the Hijrah, marks the beginning of the Islamic era. Muhammad’s followers defeated a Meccan force in 624; they suffered reverses in 625 but repelled a Meccan siege of Medina in 627. He won control of Mecca by 629 and of all Arabia by 630. He made his last journey to Mecca in 632, establishing the rites of the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca. He died later that year and was buried at Medina. His life, teachings, and miracles have been the subjects of Muslim devotion and reflection ever since. ….Pg. 494 Special Quote*** Pg. 801 Element Quote*** Pg. 808 Poem Understanding Islam*** Pg. 1016 Quote*** Pg.1459***

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7.)Francois De La Rochefoucauld (1613 –1680) French Classical Writer François VI, Duc de La Rochefoucauld, Prince de Marcillac (15 September 1613 – 17 March 1680) was a noted French author of maxims and memoirs. The view of human conduct his writings describe has been summed up by the words "everything is reducible to the motive of self-interest," though the term "gently cynical" has also been applied. Born in Paris in the Rue des Petits Champs, at a time when the royal court was oscillating between aiding the nobility and threatening it, he was considered an exemplar of the accomplished 17th-Century nobleman. Until 1650, he bore the title of Prince de Marcillac.…Pg. 341 Quote**** Pg. 408 Quote**** Pg. 411 Quote**** Pg. 527 Quote**** Pg. 848 Quote**** Pg.1183 Quote**** Pg. 1136 Element Ingredient Section Quote**** Pg.1367 Element Ingredient Section Quote**** Pg. 1444 Quote…..

8.)William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) was an Englishreal estateentrepreneur, philosopher, and founder and "absolute proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future U. S. State of Pennsylvania. He was an early champion of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Indians. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed.. In 1682, James Duke of York , the future James II of England,handed over a large piece of his American holdings to William Penn. This land included present-day Pennsylvania and Delaware. Penn immediately sailed to America and his first step on American soil took place in New Castle in 1682.On this occasion, the colonists pledged allegiance to Penn as their new Proprietor, and the first general assembly was held in the colony. Afterwards, Penn journeyed upriver and founded Philadelphia. However, Penn's Quaker government was not viewed favorably by the Dutch, Swedish, and English settlers in what is now today's Delaware. They had no "historical" allegiance to Pennsylvania, so they, almost immediately, began petitioning for their own Assembly. In 1704 they achieved their goal when the three southernmost counties of Pennsylvania, were permitted to split off and become the new semi-autonomous colony of lower Delaware. As the most prominent, prosperous and influential "city" in the new colony, New Castle became the capital. As one of the earlier supporters of colonial unification, Penn wrote and urged for a Union of all the English colonies in what was to become the United States of America. The democratic principles that he set forth in the Pennsylvania Frame of Government served as an inspiration for the United States Constitution. As a pacifistQuaker, Penn considered the problems of war and peace deeply, and included a plan for a United States of Europe, "European Dyet, Parliament or Estates," in his voluminous writings. Penn was born in 1644, the son of Admiral Sir William Penn and Margaret Jasper, a captain previously widowed and the daughter of a Rotterdam merchant.William Penn, Sr., served in the Commonwealth Navy during the English Civil War and was rewarded by Oliver Cromwell with estates in Ireland. The lands were seized from Irish Catholics, in retaliation for an earlier massacre of Protestants. Admiral Penn took part in the restoration of Charles II and was eventually knighted and served in the Royal Navy. At the time of his son’s birth, Captain Penn was twenty-three and an ambitious naval officer in charge of quelling Irish Catholic unrest and blockading Irish ports…………) Pg. 430 Comparsion Quote 2 President of United States of America John Adams**** Pg. 649 Quote**** Pg. 1068 Quote**** Pg. 1326 Quote**** Pg.1354 Element Ingredient Section Quote

9.) Benjamin Franklin (Born: January 17, 1706 – Died: April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass 'armonica. He formed both the first public lending library in America and the first fire department in Pennsylvania. Benjamin Franklin was a hero of Colonial America and a man of amazing talents. His achievements are too varied to sum up easily; they include signing the Declaration of Independence, publishing the famous Poor Richard's Almanack, serving as postmaster of Philadelphia, founding the first American fire insurance company, living in Paris as American ambassador to France, and in


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