You can’t make a living being a poet, but you can make something of a living traveling around the country talking about poetry. ~ MAXINE KUMIN
Poetry Terms & Styles Used in the EIV Bible
1.) Abecedarian- is an alphabetic acrostic. Rather than spelling out
the title, each line begins with a word beginning with the next successive line
in the alphabet. For example, if the first line begins with “A” then the second
line would begin with a word starting with the letter “B.” (
Page 1162 and 1163 is A to Z Herbs to
Acrostic- each line begins with a
word, phrase, or the beginning of sentence first letter of a word spells out a
word or words in a horizontal direction. The first of each line of the poem
works together to spell a word, usually the title of the poem.
( Examples is on Pages 390, 1394, 1395)
pronounced ashling) was developed in Ireland after the 17
century. Unlike some of the other poetic forms listed, this poem does have a
rhyme scheme. It identified by content. The aisling is characterized by the
poet reciting the tale of having a vision of Ireland in the form of a woman.
She can be old or young, beautiful or haggard. This woman is referred to in the
poem as an speirbhean (sky-woman). She mourns the state of the Irish people and
predicts a change of fortune. This form is one that grew in popularity due to
its political power. It is believed that this form was inspired by the French
Alliteration- is the repetition of the
same sounds at the beginning of words or stressed syllables. For example, the
tongue twister” Suzie sells sea shells down by the seashore” uses alliteration.
In the modern usage, alliteration is most commonly consonantal.
(On Page 587 & 605 are Written Examples)
Anapest- is a metrical foot used in
types of poetry. It consists of two unstressed syllables followed by one
Anaphora- is the repetition of a word
or a phrase as the beginning of successive clause. For example, Winston
Churchill is quoted as saying “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on
the landing grounds…” The phrase “we shall fight” is an example of an Anaphora.
1045 A Great Gifted Human Race Poem)
Antonym- is a word that has the
opposite meaning of another word. For example, the antonym of smooth is rough.
Assonance- is the repetition of an
identical or similar vowel sound. The “oo” sound in the sentence “look” at the
cookies is an example of assonance.
Ballad- is a short narrative poem with
multiple stanzas of four lines each and it usually uses a refrain. The story
originates from a wide range of subjects, but it most frequently focuses of
folklore or popular legends. Ballads are usually suitable for singing and are
generally written with the last words of the second and fourth lines rhyming.
Ballade- is a twenty-line French form
relying on the foundation of three stanzas, an envoi, and usually an
apostrophe. It must use the rhyme scheme of ababbcc dedeeff ghghii.
Blank Verse- style of poetry is
written in iambic pentameter; its main characteristic is its end-stopped lines.
Poems written in bland verse can be as long as the poet wishes provided that
each line is written in iambic pentameter.
a Possibe Example of Page 367)
12.)Calligram-is a poem that designed
to form a shape or an object related to the poem topic. For example, a poem
about tears could be formatted to look like a teardrop.
( a Example is on Pg.341 & Pg.1472)
is the muse of epic poetry in Greek
-See a Similarity at #50
Canzona (Canzone) - is a short lyric
poem of French origin. It gained popularity in the middle Ages in Italy. The
subject of the type of poetry is often love, nature, or which is called an
envoi. The stanza vary from seven to twenty lines.
(Example on Page 1068)
Chant Royal-is a poetic form that
originated in 14 century France; it was introduced to England five
centuries later. It consists of five eleven-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme
a-b-a-b-c-c-d-d-e-d-e and a five-line envoi rhyming d-d-e-d-e or a seven-line
Chastushka- is a type a traditional
Russian poetry. They are written as a
single quatrain in trochaic tetrameter with an abab or abcb rhyme scheme. They
are amusing, satirical, or ironic and cover topics ranging from bawdy jokes to
propaganda. They parallel the limerick, and are usually accomplished by music.
The musical refrain between chastukas gives the audience time to laugh without
missing the next one. Poets are resourceful and clever when performing them in
front of an audience where the contestants mocked each other in competitions
similar to today’s hip-hop improvisational battles.
Consonance Suggestive Marketing Perspective Medical Chastushka Poem)
Cinuain (Quaintain) - is a five-line
stanzaic form the varies in rhyme and line length. It is usually written in the
ababb rhyme scheme. The form became more specialized in the hands of America
poet Adelaide Crapsey. With a nod to the Japanese poetry style, she wrote
cinquains as short, unrhymed five-lines as short, unrhymed five-line poems as
two, for six, eight, and two syllables per line, respectively.
a biographical and whimsical verse consisting of two couplets and a specific
rhyming scheme, usually aabb. The poem names a well-known person/Character who
is introduced within the first line. The
lines are irregular in length. (
Example at Pg. 897)
Cliché’- is a phrase that is so
overused that it has lost its meaning.
Consonance-is the repetition of an
identical or similar consonance sound. The “b” sound as in the sentence “Blue
babe books are usually used for boys’ is an example of consonance.
Couplet- is a unit verse consisting of
two successive lines, usually rhyming, that present a complete thought.
Dactyl-is a metrical foot consisting
of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables, like flattery.
Dedication- is not mandatory for any
poem. Your poem may be dedicated to a person, a place, or an event.
Diction- is the manner which something
is expressed; it’s the vocabulary choice as well as presentation.
Direct Rhyme-is rhyme that flows
naturally and unforced. Couplets often end in direct rhyme.
Elegy-The elegy was originally written
for elegiac meter. Traditional elegiac meter is dactylic hexameter followed by
pentameter. Unlike a eulogy that must focus on the death of someone, the elegy
can also be a poem of sad, reflective, somber tone. (
(321A.D.) 300 Years of
Bloody Persecution Ended)
Enclosed Rhyme- an example of enclosed
rhyme is abba. Enclosed rhyme quatrains are used in the first stanzas of an
End-stopped-lines of poetry are
end-stopped when they terminate with punctuation.
Englyn- is a traditional Welsh style
of poetry based on rigid patterns of rhyme. There are eight types of englynion.
This style is thought to have derived from the inscriptions of the Roman tombs
in Wales. For this reason, we will focus on the englyn milwr (soldier’s
englyn). This style consists of three seven-syllable lines that rhyme.
Enjambment-Lines of poetry are
considered enjambed when a single thought continues from one line to the next
Envoi-As a piece of other poetic
forms, the envoi is the name for the short stanza at the close of a poem. It
addresses an imagined or actual person; it may also be used to comment on the
earlier content of the poem. It also repeats rhyme words or sounds used in the
main body of the poem.
(Example of Page
Epigram- is short poem that compresses
insight and wit into few lines. It often relates a clever twist or a witty
(Example is on Page 365)
Epistle Poem- is a poem written in the
form of a letter.
(On Page 474 is a
Epithalamium-is a poem written in
celebration of a marriage wishing the couple well.
(An Example on Pg.1011)
Figure of Speech-is an expression that
uses language in a figurative sense, a structured or unusual way, or utilizes
sound to achieve an effect. Metaphors and similes are examples of figures of
Foot (Plural Feet) - is the smallest
unit of measurement in English poetry. They are made up of combinations of
accented and unaccented syllables. They are: Anapest uu/ Dactyl/ uu Iamb u/
Pyrrhic uu Spondee// Trochee/ u / represents stressed syllables and u
represents unstressed syllables. If you have troubles trying to decide what is
stressed, consult a dictionary.
Free Verse- style of poetry leaves the
entire form up to the poet’s discretion. There are no requirements to this
form. It may or may rhyme. It can be as long or as short as the poet wishes.
(Example is on Page 601)
Groom- this Danish aphoristic poem was
created by the Danish poet and scientist Piet Hein. They were published in the
daily paper during the Nazi Occupation in the spring of 1940. They were meant
to inspire the people to passive resistance against Nazi Occupation in WWII.
They are brief and precise with sophisticated rhythms and rhymes. However, the
lengths, rhythms, and rhyme scheme are entirely up the poet.
(Example on Page 297 )
Haiku- One of the Japanese forms of
poetry, the haiku is a short poem of three lines using five syllables in the
first, seven syllables in the second, and five syllables in the third line. It
does not rhyme and is nature oriented.
(Example of a Haiku is on Page 607, 1071)
Heroic Couplet- is an English form
that is commonly used in epic and narrative poetry. It is a poem constructed
entirely through rhyming couplets written in iambic pentameter. These couplets
tend to be closed rather than enjamed. It gained its popularity during the 18
Homonym- is a word that has many
meanings in context. For example, a bank can be both “a place where money is
kept” and “a piece of land.”
Homophone-is a word that is pronounced
the same as another word, but it has a different meaning and is spelled
differently. An example of homophone is “there” and “their.”
Iamb- is a metrical foot used in types
of poetry. It consists of an unstressed syllable and stressed syllable, such as
Imagery- is literary reference to the
five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing and taste). It is the vocabulary used
to create a metal image. In poetry images are often created by using figures of
speech such as similes and metaphors.
Indirect Rhyme- is more subtle than
direct rhyme and it may be used to echo a sound. It is also called a
“half-rhyme” or a “Slant rhyme.”
Invocation- is a prayer, to amuse or
deity, which attempts to call forth the aid of the requested being.
Kimo- was invented in Israel as a
post-haiku poetic form. Like the haiku, the kimo is three lines. The lines are
ten, seven, and six syllables respectively.
Kyrielle- originated in troubadour
poetry. It is derived from the Kyrie, a part of many Christian liturgies. It is
written rhyming couplets or quatrains and uses a variant of the refrain “Lord
have mercy” as either the second line of the couplets or the last line of the
quatrain. While there are variations on rhyme scheme, it can be aR a Ror even
aabR ccbR, etc.
Limerick-is a five-line humorous poem.
It is a form of light verse containing five lines, in which the first, second,
and fifth rhyme and the third and fourth lines rhyme (aabba).
Line- is the smallest section of a
poem, it is one line of text.
Line Break- is where one line ends and
Metaphor- is figure of speech that
directly compares two or more unrelated subjects. For example, my hunger is a
bandy reigned thunder.
Meter-is a pattern established for a
verse (such as iambic pentameter). See Rhythm
Monologue- is a speech made by one
character in a literary work or a dramatic speech made by an actor.
Nonet-The nonet has nine lines. The
first line has nine syllables, the second eight and so forth until the last
line closes with one syllable. The subject can be anything the poet wishes and
there is no mandatory rhyme scheme.
Octave-is an eight-lined stanza..
Ode- is a poem honoring a person, a
place or a thing. Rhyme scheme is entirely subject to the poet’s wishes.
(Example is Page 881-882)
Onomatopoeia- is the use of words to
imitate sounds associated with objects such as “Quack” of “Click.”
Ottavia Rima-orginated in Rome, Italy
as an eight-line poem with a rhyme scheme of abababcc; each line is written in
Oxymoron- is a rhetorical figure that
conjoins contradictory terms, such as “jumbo shrimp” or “deafening silence.
Palindrome-is a word, phrase, verse,
sentence, or even poem that reads the same forward or backward. It stems from
the Greek word palindromos. The carefully placed words create the same
sentence, whether it is read forward or backward. For example, ‘Mirrored images
reflect images mirrored’ which includes a word in the center as a reversal
point for the sentence or even the poem.
Page 1262 Poem is Palindrome Archeology Ch.16.D Astronomy The Virtue of Wonder)
Pantoum-consists of a series of
quatrains rhyming abab. The second and fourth lines of the first quatrain recur
as the first and third lines in the following quatrain. Succeeding quatrains
introduce a new second rhyme, i.e. abab bcbc. The form can include as many
stanzas as the poet wishes as long as they follow this structure. The closing
stanza opens with the second line of the previous stanza, but the second and fourth
lines come from the first stanza. Hence, the last stanza is structured like
this: line 2 of previous stanza Line 3 of first stanza Line 4 of previous
stanza Line 1 of first stanza.
Pantun- was created in Malay. It was
originally an oral literary form of experience. Pantuns have an even number of
lines and can range from two to sixteen lines. It generally has four lines and
has a structured fixed rhythm. Ever line tends to have anywhere from eight to
twelve syllables. The quatrains rhyme in an abab pattern with the second and
fourth lines of the first stanza becoming the third and first lines of the
following stanza respectively. While it’s similar to the pantoum, the lines are
reversed when they are repeated in the poem.
Parody- is an artistic work that
imitates or mocks the style of an author or work for comic effect or ridicule.
For example, weird Al Yankovic parodied Madonna’s song “Like a Virgin” with his
song “Like a Surgeon.”
Pastoral-poem depicts an idyllic life
in the countryside.
(Example is on Page
Pathos-is the quality in an artistic
work that evokes feeling of sympathy, pity, or sorrow.
Persona-is a voice or character in a
Prose-is type of poem that reads as a
Pyrrhic-is a metrical foot used in
types of poetry. It consists of two unstressed syllables. (uu)
Quatrain-is a poem consisting of four
lines of verse with a specific rhyming scheme with the first and third lines
rhyming and the second and fourth lines rhyming. The word “Quatrain” can also
be used to describe a four-line stanza within a poem.
(Example on Page 366)
Reverdie-This non-political French
form does not have a rhyme scheme. In order to be a reverdie, the poem must
impart the story of meeting an attractive mystical woman who signifies the
reward of nature, spring, and love.
(For Example Page 375 Could be a Reverdie
Rhyme Royal (Rime Royal)- the rhyme
royal scheme is the poem of rhyming lines in a poem. Rhyme scheme are denoted
by representative letter to show which lines rhyme. For example, abab could denote
a quatrain’s rhyme scheme.
Rhythm-is the actual sound that
results from line of poetry. Thus, the meter of a line may be described as
being “iambic” but a full description of the rhythm would require the pattern
analysis of the language to include tempo changes and how the meter interacts
with other elements of vocabulary. In English, metrical rhythm is generally
used. It involves exact patterns of stresses or syllables in repeated patterns
within a line called “feet.” Rhythm based on meter in English usually concerns
the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Rondel- is a variation of the rondeau
where the first two lines of the first stanza are repeated as the last lines of
the second and third stanzas. This fourteen-line poem relies on a rhyme scheme
of ABab abAB abbaAB. (AB represents the repetition of the same line.)
Rondelet- is a brief form of French
poetry. It consists of one seven-line stanza and a refrain with a strict rhyme
scheme and a distinct meter pattern. The refrain should contain the same words,
but changes to puncation are acceptable. Line 1 four syllables (a) Line 2 eight
syllables (b)Line 3 (repeat of line1)Line 4 eight syllables (a) Line 5 eight
syllables (b) Line 7 (repeat of line 1)
Rubaiyat- is an Arabic poem; it is
Persian word for quatrain. The rhyme scheme is aaba. The convention for
expanded rubaiyat allows the unrhymed line would rhyme line in the following
stanzas. If it continues to the z for the rhyme scheme, the unrhymed line would
rhyme with the first (a).
Scansion-is the term used to describe
the analysis of the patterns of meter in a poem.
Sestina- This French form consists of
thirty-nine lines. There are six six-line stanzas and it usually concludes with
a triplet. There is no restriction on line length though it traditionally is
written in iambic pentameter. The first stanza has six lines. The word that
ends each of the six lines must also end the lines of the five following
stanzas in a particular pattern. The pattern would look like this if you
numbered the lines. Stanza 1-123456 Stanza 2-615243 Stanza 3-364125 Stanza
4-532614 Stanza 5-451362 Stanza 6-246531. The concluding triplet Line 1uses the
words from 2 and 5 Line 2 uses the words from 4 and 3 Line 3 uses the words
from 1 and 6.
Sijo- This Korean style was originally
called tanga. This form, like the haiku, is founded in natural themes and a
short structure. However, metaphysical and astronomical themes are also
investigated. The lines average pause in the middle of the line. In English,
they are often printed as six lines rather than three. The first line is used
to introduce a situation. The second line develops it and the third line
provides a conclusion with a twist to resolve the tension and provides an
Simile-is a figure of speech used to
compare one subject to another. Frequently, similes are denoted by use of the
words “like,” “as,” or “so.” For example, “my smile is like an umbrella” is a
Sonnet- it usually focuses on the
subject of real or imagined courtly love. It is a form of fourteen lines of
iambic pentameter in a variation of rhyme schemes: abba abba cd ee dd or abba
abba cde cde.
(Example on Page 424)
Sonnet, Petrarch an (Italian) - is
made of two parts the octave and the sestet. The octave (abba abba) introduces
a problem from a viewpoint. The sestet (cde cde) changes the viewpoint and the
poem concludes with a personal resolution. While the octave must be rhymed
abba, there are many variations for the sestet’s rhyme scheme. It may be cce
dde or cdd cee, etc.
(Example is on Page
Sonnet, Shakespearean (English) - is
another variation of the fourteen-line poem consisting of their quatrains and a
final couplet written in iambic pentameter with rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef
gg. The third quatrain is marked by a change in the poem’s tone or the
introduction of a revelation or epiphany.
Spondee-is a metrical foot used in
types of poetry. It consists of two stressed syllables.
Stanza-is the second largest unit of a
poem. It is also referred to as a “verse.” In traditional poetry, stanza is
often indentified by a shared rhyme scheme, form, of fixed number of lines
(sestet and quatrain, for example). In modern poetry, stanzas may also be
created for visual appearance when printed.
Stanza Break-is the blank line that
Syllable-is a unit of spoken language
consisting of single uninterrupted sound. Syllables are important for a number
of forms such as the haiku.
Synecdoche- is a type of metaphor
where a part of an item represents the whole. For example, “Four tongues wagged
in unison” is a synecdoche. The tongues represent the people speaking.
(On Page 949
Forever Survivors Synecdoche Metaphor Poem)
Synesthesia- combines two senses
together. For example, “Velvet silence” lets one feel the Sound.
(Example is on Page 425)
Synonym- is a word that has similar
definition to another word, making them interchangeable in content. For
example, a synonym of “laugh” is “Chortle.”
Tanagra- is a short type of Filipino
poem, consisting of four seven-syllable lines each with the same rhyme at the
end of each line. It would be 7-7-7-7 syllabic verse, with an aaaa rhyme
scheme. Like the haiku, traditional tanagas do not have titles. They have been
handed down from oral history or are used to share proverbs and moral ethics.
Tanagas were designed for their original language, Tagalog. However, the form
is dying. The modern tanagas can be written in English and other languages. In
the modern movement, lines are still restricted to seven syllables, but the
rhyme scheme can vary to aabb, abab, abba or even aaab, baaa, or abcd.
Tanka-originated in Japan. The
five-line poem consists of thirty-one syllables broken up as
five-seven-five-seven-seven. It is unrhymed and traditionally it reflects
nature in a simple and succinct style. The haiku was originally the opening
three lines of a tanka.
Tercet (Triplet)-is three lines of
poetry forming a stanza or a poem. An enclosed tercet rhymes aba. Both the
villanelle and the Italian sonnet use a trecet.
Terzanelle- combines the villanelle
and the terza rima. It is nineteen lines total with five triples and a
concluding quatrain. The rhyme scheme for the five triplets is aba, bcb, cdc,
ded, efe. It ends with either fafa or ffaa.
Triolet-One of the French forms of
poetry, a triolet consists of a pair of quatrains with two rhyming sounds. The
first, fourth, and seventh line are exactly the same, and the second line
repeats as the last (eighth) line. It uses rhyme scheme of ABaAabAB. The
capitals represent the repeated lines
Trochee (Choree)-is a metrical foot
consisting of a stressed and ustressed syllable, such as Pe-ter. This type of
foot often appears in nursey rhymes.
Villanelle- is a French style
nineteen-line poem consisting of a very specific rhyming scheme: aba aba aba
aba aba abaa. The first and the third lines in the first stanza are repeated in
alternating order throughout the poem, and appear together in the last two
Virelai Acien-orginated in Middle Ages
France. It consists of a tercet of two long lines and one short line rhyming
aab to create the foundation for the stanza. Each stanza can have as many
tercets as the poet wishes. The non-rhymed lines become the rhyming lines of
the following stanza. A sample rhyme scheme would be aabaab bbcbbc ccdccd
Virelai Nouveau-is a rare and
difficult form to use that’s main characteristic uses a double refrain on only
two rhymes. The poem begins with a couplet and these two lines become the
refrain through the alternating stanzas. The poem ends with an envoi and the
last two lines the opening couplet in reversed order. There is no standard of
lines per stanza or pattern of rhymes.